am standing on the Point des Arts in Paris. [...]
is civilization? I don’t know. I can’t define it in abstract
terms - yet. But I think I can recognize it when I see it; and I am
looking at it now.
Clark: Civilisation, A personal view, John Murray, London,
Inc, chosen by New York to design its public toilets, has designed
them for a number of cities, including Seville, Spain, above.
Marseilles, some 14 thousand of 32,653 buildings noted in the 1886
census had no system for human waste disposal. Waste was simply
accumulated in a potty on each floor and then disposed of in the
question was definitively resolved for French architectural
theorists, as is clear from the declaration made in 1882 to the
Society of Public Medicine by Emile Trélat, founder of the Ecole
Spéciale d’Architecture:"City dwellers must be carefully
protected from their excretions from the moment they are produced.
The waste outlet, normally kept sealed, should be opened briefly,
and waste should be forcefully expelled from the residence by a
powerful stream of water."
history of private life, Vol. IV (M.Perrot, Ed.), Harvard
University Press, Cambridge, 1990.
more than a decade of false starts, New York City officials
announced yesterday that they had selected a company to remake the
city's jumbled streetscape by providing aesthetic order to its
thousands of bus shelters.
Inc., the North American subsidiary of a Spanish advertising
conglomerate, would install the amenities without charge, and pay a
fee, in exchange for the city's permission to sell advertising on
the toilets, bus shelters and newsstands. Although
these would be the first American toilets for Cemusa, the company
has installed hundreds of them throughout Spain and Latin America in
the past decade, from Seville to Rio de Janeiro, Cemusa officials
said. The company has also built bus shelters in Boston, Miami and
street project seeks to address an embarrassing shortcoming in a
city that prides itself as a world capital with riches aplenty: a
lack of public toilets in busy Manhattan business districts. Under
three different mayors, efforts to put toilets on city streets have
been thwarted by bureaucratic infighting, legal battles and a
seeming inability to figure out how a public toilet would function
on a New York City street.
Hu: Deal is reached to put toilets on city streets, NY Times,
Sep. 22, 2005.